Old City, Khiva, Uzbekistan
In the 17th century the Amu Darya River changed its crease and Khiva became the center of the oasis and the capital of a khanate. The Khiva khan was dethroned in 1920 and Khiva Republic was formed. It was annexed to the USSR in 1925 and Khiva became an administrative unite of Uzbekistan.
Currently it is a huge museum in the open, located behind tall and thick walls, and with almost no people residing inside.