Kyzyl Kala, Southern Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan
The fortress walls are approx. 16m high. Inside the fortress there is a second row of walls parallel to the external walls and separated from them by a 2 meters wide corridor. On the top of exterior wall there are two tiers of arrow loopholes. The walls of some upper premises were decorated with murals and in the ground platform there was a network of underground arched rooms. Kyzyl Kala actively functioned in the 1st–4th centuries but after that it was abandoned.
It was recovered as a frontier garrison fortress only in the 12th – beginning of the 13th century during Khorezmshakhs. Initially Kyzyl Kala could be a guarding post at Toprak Kala as well as castle of a Khorezmian nobleman or grandee.